How batteries work

Batteries or batteries are portable devices that can store energy and provide electrical current directly to any appliance that is not connected to a mains power supply. Batteries take advantage of the basic principles of electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry that studies the changes in electrical potentials of each substance, to obtain a flow of electrons through a conductor and generate voltage or electrical energy. In this article, we will briefly look at how batteries work.


Batteries (dry batteries) are made up of three well-defined parts: the anode (negative pole), the cathode (positive pole) and the electrolyte (conductor). The basic operation is based on a flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode through the electrolyte when the circuit is closed. In this way, a voltage is generated that can be used by any electrical device.


The cathode can be made of any material, but is usually made of magnesium dioxide and carbon. The anodes are usually made of zinc powder. The two are separated inside the battery by a fibrous fabric, and at the ends of the battery are the electrodes that are intended to transmit the electricity.

The electrolyte is made of a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide in water and carries the electrons to a collector made of copper that sends the current to the electrodes. Here is a video in which we can see electrochemistry concepts and how some batteries work:

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