The electromagnet is a useful device that harnesses the conductivity of metal and electric current to generate temporary magnetic fields. It has a huge number of applications, ranging from simple physics experiments to more complex devices in modern life. Today, we will look at how to make an electromagnetusing the principles of winding and electrical conduction, which we can use in other projects or inventions of different types.
- An iron nail or a ½ inch screw.
- Copper wire.
- A battery of any type.
- Nails, metal clips, iron filings.
To create our electromagnetTo do this, we start by taking the nail or screw and with the copper wire we make a winding in the form of overlapping coils (which is known as a solenoid), leaving an empty space between the head of the nail or screw and the beginning of the winding, as well as a space between the end of the winding and the tip of the nail or screw.
We make approximately 100 turns, depending on the size of the screw or nail. Remember that the more turns our solenoid has, the stronger the magnetic field that our electromagnet will be able to generate. We must leave a piece of wire sticking out between the beginning of the solenoid and the end, these will be the direct contacts with the energy source.
Once the solenoidTo do this, we close the circuit by passing current around the assembly, using a battery of any type. For this example, we will use an AA battery, but the greater the current, the greater the magnetic field and the more powerful the electromagnet will be.
Now, we proceed to close the circuit by placing one end of the solenoid on one pole of the battery and the protruding end on the other pole. By doing this, we can test our electromagnet with some paper clips or iron filings or other nails, we will see how they are attracted to our assembly and by separating any of the contacts from the power source the magnetic field will be lost.
How it works
Electrical conductors can effectively flow electrons through themselves. If we place around them coils of another conductive material that is conducting electrons, this will generate lines of magnetic field so extensive that magnetic poles will be created simulating a real magnet.
As it is an effect that depends on the amount of current, the power of the electromagnet will depend proportionally on the amount of energy and, of course, on the number of turns.